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史上最全 晶圆术语 Wafer Fabrication
时间:2020-09-15 14:50来源: 作者: 点击:
Acceptor - An element, such as boron, indium, and gallium used to create a free hole in a semiconductor. The acceptor atoms are required to have one less valence electron than the semiconductor.
受主 - 一种用来在半导体中形成空穴的元素,比如硼、铟和镓。受主原子必须比半导体元素少一价电子

Alignment Precision - Displacement of patterns that occurs during the photolithography process.
套准精度 - 在光刻工艺中转移图形的精度。

Anisotropic - A process of etching that has very little or no undercutting各向异性 - 在蚀刻过程中,只做少量或不做侧向凹刻。

Area Contamination - Any foreign particles or material that are found on the suRFace of a wafer. This is viewed as discolored or smudged, and it is the result of stains, fingerprints, water spots, etc.
沾污区域 - 任何在晶圆片表面的外来粒子或物质。由沾污、手印和水滴产生的污染。

Azimuth, in Ellipsometry - The angle measured between the plane of incidence and the major axis of the ellipse.
椭圆方位角 - 测量入射面和主晶轴之间的角度。

Backside - The bottom surface of a silicon wafer. (Note: This term is not preferred; instead, use ‘back surface’.)
背面 - 晶圆片的底部表面。(注:不推荐该术语,建议使用“背部表面”)

Base Silicon Layer - The silicon wafer that is located underneath the insulator layer, which supports the silicon film on top of the wafer.
底部硅层 - 在绝缘层下部的晶圆片,是顶部硅层的基础。

Bipolar - Transistors that are able to use both holes and electrons as charge carriers.
双极晶体管 - 能够采用空穴和电子传导电荷的晶体管。

Bonded Wafers - Two silicon wafers that have been bonded together by silicon dioxide, which acts as an insulating layer.
绑定晶圆片 - 两个晶圆片通过二氧化硅层结合到一起,作为绝缘层。

Bonding Interface - The area where the bonding of two wafers occurs.
绑定面 - 两个晶圆片结合的接触区。

Buried Layer - A path of low resistance for a current moving in a device. Many of these dopants are antimony and arsenic.
埋层 - 为了电路电流流动而形成的低电阻路径,搀杂剂是锑和砷。

Buried Oxide Layer (BOX) - The layer that insulates between the two wafers.
氧化埋层(BOX) - 在两个晶圆片间的绝缘层。

Carrier - Valence holes and conduction electrons that are capable of carrying a charge through a solid surface in a silicon wafer.
载流子 - 晶圆片中用来传导电流的空穴或电子。

Chemical-Mechanical Polish (CMP) - A process of flattening and polishing wafers that utilizes both chemical removal and mechanical buffing. It is used during the fabrication process.
化学-机械抛光(CMP) - 平整和抛光晶圆片的工艺,采用化学移除和机械抛光两种方式。此工艺在前道工艺中使用。

Chuck Mark - A mark found on either surface of a wafer, caused by either a robotic end effector, a chuck, or a wand.
卡盘痕迹 - 在晶圆片任意表面发现的由机械手、卡盘或托盘造成的痕迹。

Cleavage Plane - A fracture plane that is preferred.
解理面 - 破裂面

Crack - A mark found on a wafer that is greater than 0.25 mm in length.
裂纹 - 长度大于0.25毫米的晶圆片表面微痕。

Crater - Visible under dIFfused illumination, a surface imperfection on a wafer that can be distinguished individually.
微坑 - 在扩散照明下可见的,晶圆片表面可区分的缺陷。

Conductivity (electrical) - A measurement of how easily charge carriers can flow throughout a material.
传导性(电学方面) - 一种关于载流子通过物质难易度的测量指标 。

Conductivity Type - The type of charge carriers in a wafer, such as “N-type” and “P-type”.
导电类型 - 晶圆片中载流子的类型,N型和P型。

Contaminant, Particulate (see light point defect)
污染微粒 (参见光点缺陷)

Contamination Area - An area that contains particles that can negatively affect the characteristics of a silicon wafer.
沾污区域 - 部分晶圆片区域被颗粒沾污,造成不利特性影响。

Contamination Particulate - Particles found on the surface of a silicon wafer.
沾污颗粒 - 晶圆片表面上的颗粒。

Crystal Defect - Parts of the crystal that contain vacancies and dislocations that can have an impact on a circuit’s electrical performance.
晶体缺陷 - 部分晶体包含的、会影响电路性能的空隙和层错。

Crystal Indices (see Miller indices)
晶体指数 (参见米勒指数)

Depletion Layer - A region on a wafer that contains an electrical field that sweeps out charge carriers.
耗尽层 - 晶圆片上的电场区域,此区域排除载流子。

Dimple - A concave depression found on the surface of a wafer that is visible to the eye under the correct lighting conditions.
表面起伏 - 在合适的光线下通过肉眼可以发现的晶圆片表面凹陷。

Donor - A contaminate that has donated extra “free” electrons, thus making a wafer “N-Type”.
施主 - 可提供“自由”电子的搀杂物,使晶圆片呈现为N型。

Dopant - An element that contributes an electron or a hole to the conduction process, thus altering the conductivity. Dopants for silicon wafers are found in Groups III and V of the Periodic Table of the Elements.
搀杂剂 - 可以为传导过程提供电子或空穴的元素,此元素可以改变传导特性。晶圆片搀杂 剂可以在元素周期表的III 和 V族元素中发现。

Doping - The process of the donation of an electron or hole to the conduction process by a dopant.
掺杂 - 把搀杂剂掺入半导体,通常通过扩散或离子注入工艺实现。

Edge Chip and Indent - An edge imperfection that is greater than 0.25 mm.
芯片边缘和缩进 - 晶片中不完整的边缘部分超过0.25毫米。

Edge Exclusion Area - The area located between the fixed quality area and the periphery of a wafer. (This varies according to the dimensions of the wafer.)
边缘排除区域 - 位于质量保证区和晶圆片外围之间的区域。(根据晶圆片的尺寸不同而有所不同。)

Edge Exclusion, Nominal (EE) - The distance between the fixed quality area and the periphery of a wafer.
名义上边缘排除(EE) - 质量保证区和晶圆片外围之间的距离。

Edge Profile - The edges of two bonded wafers that have been shaped either chemically or mechanically.
边缘轮廓 - 通过化学或机械方法连接起来的两个晶圆片边缘。

Etch - A process of chemical reactions or physical removal to rid the wafer of excess materials.
蚀刻 - 通过化学反应或物理方法去除晶圆片的多余物质。

Fixed Quality Area (FQA) - The area that is most central on a wafer surface.
质量保证区(FQA) - 晶圆片表面中央的大部分。

Flat - A section of the perimeter of a wafer that has been removed for wafer orientation purposes.
平边 - 晶圆片圆周上的一个小平面,作为晶向定位的依据。

Flat Diameter - The measurement from the center of the flat through the center of the wafer to the opposite edge of the wafer. (Perpendicular to the flat)
平口直径 - 由小平面的中心通过晶圆片中心到对面边缘的直线距离。

Four-Point Probe - Test equipment used to test resistivity of wafers.
探针 - 测量半导体晶片表面电阻的设备。

Furnace and Thermal Processes - Equipment with a temperature gauge used for processing wafers. A constant temperature is required for the process.
炉管和热处理 - 温度测量的工艺设备,具有恒定的处理温度。

Front Side - The top side of a silicon wafer. (This term is not preferred; use front surface instead.)
正面 - 晶圆片的顶部表面(此术语不推荐,建议使用“前部表面”)。

Goniometer - An instrument used in measuring angles.
角度计 - 用来测量角度的设备。

Gradient, Resistivity (not preferred; see resistivity variation)
电阻梯度 (不推荐使用,参见“电阻变化”)

Groove - A scratch that was not completely polished out.
凹槽 - 没有被完全清除的擦伤。

Hand Scribe Mark - A marking that is hand scratched onto the back surface of a wafer for identification purposes.
手工印记 - 为区分不同的晶圆片而手工在背面做出的标记。

Haze - A mass concentration of surface imperfections, often giving a hazy appearance to the wafer.
雾度 - 晶圆片表面大量的缺陷,常常表现为晶圆片表面呈雾状。

Hole - Similar to a positive charge, this is caused by the absence of a valence electron.
空穴 - 和正电荷类似,是由缺少价电子引起的。

Ingot - A cylindrical solid made of polycrystalline or single crystal silicon from which wafers are cut.
晶锭 - 由多晶或单晶形成的圆柱体,晶圆片由此切割而成。

Laser Light-Scattering Event - A signal pulse that locates surface imperfections on a wafer.
激光散射 - 由晶圆片表面缺陷引起的脉冲信号。

Lay - The main direction of surface texture on a wafer.
层 - 晶圆片表面结构的主要方向。

Light Point Defect (LPD) (Not preferred; see localized light-scatterer)
光点缺陷(LPD) (不推荐使用,参见“局部光散射”)

Lithography - The process used to transfer patterns onto wafers.
光刻 - 从掩膜到圆片转移的过程。

Localized Light-Scatterer - One feature on the surface of a wafer, such as a pit or a scratch that scatters light. It is also calLED a light point defect.
局部光散射 - 晶圆片表面特征,例如小坑或擦伤导致光线散射,也称为光点缺陷。

Lot - Wafers of similar sizes and characteristics placed together in a shipment.
批次 - 具有相似尺寸和特性的晶圆片一并放置在一个载片器内。

Majority Carrier - A carrier, either a hole or an electron that is dominant in a specific region, such as electrons in an N-Type area.
多数载流子 - 一种载流子,在半导体材料中起支配作用的空穴或电子,例如在N型中是电子。

Mechanical Test Wafer - A silicon wafer used for testing purposes.
机械测试晶圆片 - 用于测试的晶圆片。

microroughness - Surface roughness with spacing between the impurities with a measurement of less than 100 μm.
微粗糙 - 小于100微米的表面粗糙部分。

Miller Indices, of a Crystallographic Plane - A system that utilizes three numbers to identify plan orientation in a crystal.
Miller索指数 - 三个整数,用于确定某个并行面。这些整数是来自相同系统的基本向量。

Minimal Conditions or Dimensions - The allowable conditions for determining whether or not a wafer is considered acceptable.
最小条件或方向 - 确定晶圆片是否合格的允许条件。

Minority Carrier - A carrier, either a hole or an electron that is not dominant in a specific region, such as electrons in a P-Type area.
少数载流子 - 在半导体材料中不起支配作用的移动电荷,在P型中是电子,在N型中是空穴。

Mound - A raised defect on the surface of a wafer measuring more than 0.25 mm.
堆垛 - 晶圆片表面超过0.25毫米的缺陷。

Notch - An indent on the edge of a wafer used for orientation purposes.
凹槽 - 晶圆片边缘上用于晶向定位的小凹槽。

Orange Peel - A roughened surface that is visible to the unaided eye.
桔皮 - 可以用肉眼看到的粗糙表面

Orthogonal Misorientation -
直角定向误差 -

Particle - A small piece of material found on a wafer that is not connected with it.
颗粒 - 晶圆片上的细小物质。

Particle Counting - Wafers that are used to test tools for particle contamination.
颗粒计算 - 用来测试晶圆片颗粒污染的测试工具。

Particulate Contamination - Particles found on the surface of a wafer. They appear as bright points when a collineated light is shined on the wafer.
颗粒污染 - 晶圆片表面的颗粒。

Pit - A non-removable imperfection found on the surface of a wafer.
深坑 - 一种晶圆片表面无法消除的缺陷。

Point Defect - A crystal defect that is an impurity, such as a lattice vacancy or an interstitial atom.
点缺陷 - 不纯净的晶缺陷,例如格子空缺或原子空隙。

Preferential Etch -
优先蚀刻 -

Premium Wafer - A wafer that can be used for particle counting, measuring pattern resolution in the photolithography process, and metal contamination monitoring. This wafer has very strict specifications for a specific usage, but looser specifications than the prime wafer.
测试晶圆片 - 影印过程中用于颗粒计算、测量溶解度和检测金属污染的晶圆片。对于具体应用该晶圆片有严格的要求,但是要比主晶圆片要求宽松些。

Primary Orientation Flat - The longest flat found on the wafer.
主定位边 - 晶圆片上最长的定位边。

Process Test Wafer - A wafer that can be used for processes as well as area cleanliness.
加工测试晶圆片 - 用于区域清洁过程中的晶圆片。

Profilometer - A tool that is used for measuring surface topography.
表面形貌剂 - 一种用来测量晶圆片表面形貌的工具。

Resistivity (Electrical) - The amount of difficulty that charged carriers have in moving throughout material.
电阻率(电学方面) - 材料反抗或对抗电荷在其中通过的一种物理特性。

Required - The minimum specifications needed by the customer when ordering wafers.
必需 - 订购晶圆片时客户必须达到的最小规格。

Roughness - The texture found on the surface of the wafer that is spaced very closely together.
粗糙度 - 晶圆片表面间隙很小的纹理。

Saw Marks - Surface irregularities
锯痕 - 表面不规则。

Scan Direction - In the flatness calculation, the direction of the subsites.
扫描方向 - 平整度测量中,局部平面的方向。

Scanner Site Flatness -
局部平整度扫描仪 -

Scratch - A mark that is found on the wafer surface.
擦伤 - 晶圆片表面的痕迹。

Secondary Flat - A flat that is smaller than the primary orientation flat. The position of this flat determines what type the wafer is, and also the orientation of the wafer.
第二定位边 - 比主定位边小的定位边,它的位置决定了晶圆片的类型和晶向。

Shape -
形状 -

Site - An area on the front surface of the wafer that has sides parallel and perpendicular to the primary orientation flat. (This area is rectangular in shape)
局部表面 - 晶圆片前面上平行或垂直于主定位边方向的区域。

Site Array - a neighboring set of sites
局部表面系列 - 一系列的相关局部表面。

Site Flatness -
局部平整 -

Slip - A defect pattern of small ridges found on the surface of the wafer.
划伤 - 晶圆片表面上的小皱造成的缺陷。

Smudge - A defect or contamination found on the wafer caused by fingerprints.
污迹 - 晶圆片上指纹造成的缺陷或污染。

Sori -
Striation - Defects or contaminations found in the shape of a helix.
条痕 - 螺纹上的缺陷或污染。

Subsite, of a Site - An area found within the site, also rectangular. The center of the subsite must be located within the original site.
局部子表面 - 局部表面内的区域,也是矩形的。子站中心必须位于原始站点内部。

Surface Texture - Variations found on the real surface of the wafer that deviate from the reference surface.
表面纹理 - 晶圆片实际面与参考面的差异情况。

Test Wafer - A silicon wafer that is used in manufacturing for monitoring and testing purposes.
测试晶圆片 - 用于生产中监测和测试的晶圆片。

Thickness of Top Silicon Film - The distance found between the face of the top silicon film and the surface of the oxide layer.
顶部硅膜厚度 - 顶部硅层表面和氧化层表面间的距离。

Top Silicon Film - The layer of silicon on which semiconductor devices are placed. This is located on top of the insulating layer.
顶部硅膜 - 生产半导体电路的硅层,位于绝缘层顶部。

Total Indicator Reading (TIR) - The smallest distance between planes on the surface of the wafer.
总计指示剂数(TIR) - 晶圆片表面位面间的最短距离。

Virgin Test Wafer - A wafer that has not been used in manufacturing or other processes.
原始测试晶圆片 - 还没有用于生产或其他流程中的晶圆片。

Void - The lack of any sort of bond (particularly a chemical bond) at the site of bonding.
无效 - 在应该绑定的地方没有绑定(特别是化学绑定)。

Waves - Curves and contours found on the surface of the wafer that can be seen by the naked eye.
波浪 - 晶圆片表面通过肉眼能发现的弯曲和曲线。

Waviness - Widely spaced imperfections on the surface of a wafer.
波纹 - 晶圆片表面经常出现的缺陷。
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